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Evolution Challenged

Scientists on Evolution
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Dear friend for openness in science,

Attached 6 pages provide you with a brief run-down of the papers to be presented at this year's Conference, 'The Scientific Impossibility of Evolution'.

Nov 9th and start of the Conference are about to begin in Rome. Don't expect to read about it elsewhere. Even "Catholic" mainstream media join in the evolutionist censorship game.

Please pray that the good news of evolutionism's lack of scientific credibility will break through the wall evolutionists have put in place as a censorship device in their frenzied efforts to cover up the lie that is being taught in public schools throughout the world.

We are not asking that the scientifically unverifiable subject of Origins be taught in science curricula, but that the scientifically unfounded theory of evolutionism be removed from those science curricula. Also, pray for the safety, guidance and physical protection of these courageous scientists who are willing to place their professional reputations 'on the line'.

Let us not forget that evolutionism is a core dogma of all atheist religions ' Scientology, Secular Humanism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintoism, the Ethical Societies, etc., not to mention the official State atheist religion taught in all public schools of the USA.

     Paul Ellwanger

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Program of the Congress

'The Scientific Impossibility of Evolution'
November 9, 2009
Libera Université degli Studi San Pio V
Via Cristoforo Colombo, No. 200, Rome

Dominique Tassot: Introduction
Guy Berthault: Experiments in Stratification do not support the Theory of Evolution
Thomas Seiler: The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Evolution
Josef Holzschuh: Recent C-14 Dating of Megafauna and Dinosaur Fossil Collagen
Jean de Pontcharra: Are Radio-dating Methods reliable?
Maciej Giertych: Impact of Research on Race Formation and Mutations on the Theory of Evolution

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Speakers' Credentials

Dr. Dominique Tassot, a graduate of the Ecole des Mines (ParisTech), Ph.D. in Philosophy, is President of the Centre d'Études et de Prospective sur la Science.

Mr. Guy Berthault is a graduate of the Ecole Polytechnique, France, a member of the French Geological Society and the Association of Sedimentologists. His experiments have been published by the French Academy of Sciences, the Journal of the Geological Society of France, and the Russian Academy of Sciences journal 'Lithology and Mineral Resources.'

Dr. Josef Holzschuh has a Ph.D. in geophysics from the University of Western Australia.

Prof. Maciej Giertych holds an M.A. in forestry rom Oxford University in England and a Ph. D. in tree physiology from Toronto University, Canada, and a D.Sc. in genetics from the Agricultural Academy in Poznan, Poland. A population geneticist, Dr. Giertych has published more than 200 scientific papers and several books, primarily in the field of population genetics of forest trees.

Dr. Jean de Pontcharra heads the research group of the CEA-LETI (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Laboratoire d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Informatique). He has a doctorate in solid state physics from the University of Grenoble, France. (Dr. Thomas Seiler will present his paper at the conference.)

Dr. Thomas Seiler is a German physicist with a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Munich.

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Summaries of the Lectures

Experiments in Stratification Do Not Support the Theory of Evolution

Guy Berthault

The theory of evolution formulated by Darwin claims the fossil record shows that organisms have transformed into different species over the long periods of time expressed in the geological time-scale. This scale, however, is based upon the interpretations of stratified sedimentary rock formations by naturalist Nicolas Stenon published in his book in 1667. He wrote "superposed strata are ancient sedimentary layers", which statement defines the principle of superposition. It was only relatively recently that the sedimentation process could be observed and Stenon's interpretations tested. As they had not been tested before, I decided to do so.

Science being founded upon facts, I first examined the reports of deep-sea drilling projects and Hjulstr'm's research on fluviatile sediments. This was followed by my fundamental experiments laboratory experiments in stratification. The latter showed that laminae or thin strata result from segregation of particles in dry conditions, a vacuum or still water. Two reports were published in 1986 and 1988 by theFrench Academy of Sciences.

In 1991, I supervised experiments to obtain larger strata under the direction of Pierre Julien, Professor of hydrology and sedimentology at the University of Colorado (USA). These demonstrated that a turbulent current creates strata prograding together laterally and vertically as a result of variations in current velocity. A report was published in 1993 by the Geological Society of France. The experiments showed that neither the lamination nor the stratification produced could be explained by the principle of superposition. The experimental data revealed by this research has yet to be incorporated into present-day geology and sedimentology. A similar situation arose in sequence stratigraphy developed by Golovkinsky in 1868 and Walther in 1894 providing data that was not taken into account in geology until eventually adopted by the Exxon Group in 1977. It showed that systems tracts consisting of superposed strata are isochronous, i.e. the strata formed simultaneously as is demonstrated by our experiments inColorado.

Nicolas Stenon and his successors having overlooked the current as an agent of sedimentation, it was necessary to conduct experiments in the laboratory and paleohydraulic analyses on the terrain of existing stratified sedimentary rocks to demonstrate the omission. The latter analyses were performed to relate sedimentary particles according to their size with current velocity at the successive stages of erosion, transport and deposition. The relationship applies to the lithology of sequences from conglomerates to small particles. Their application was developed in my 2002 publication Analysis of the Main Principles of Stratigraphy on the Basis of Experimental Data in the journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

A team of Russian sedimentologists directed by Alexander Lalomov (Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute of Ore Deposits) applied paleohydraulic analyses to geological formations in Russia (examples are the Crimean Peninsular and the North-West Russian Platform). In the case of the Platform it is shown that the time taken for the sediments to deposit would have been no more that 0.01% of that ascribed to them by the geological time-scale. This demonstrated the lesson taught by geology historian Gabriel Gohau that "...time is measured by the time taken for sediments to deposit, a fact upon which everybody is more or less agreed, and not by orogenesis of biological revolutions." Evolution cannot, therefore, occur in such a short time.

Mr. Guy Berthault is a graduate of the Ecole Polytechnique, France, a member of the French Geological Society and the Association of Sedimentologists. His experiments have been published by the French Academy of Sciences, the Journal of the Geological Society of France, and the Russian Academy of Sciences journal 'Lithology and Mineral Resources.'

* * *

The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Evolution

Dr. Thomas Seiler, Ph.D.

The science of thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with the study of the movement of heat, or energy. The first law of thermodynamics states that the total amount of energy content of a closed system is constant. A closed system is a system that exchanges no energy with the outside world, giving off none and taking up none. The second law of thermodynamics applies to all forms of energy, not just heat, and states that entropy, in a closed system, will always increase with time.

In terms of the Universe the first law states the total energy of the universe is constant. The second law states that the total entropy of the universe is continually increasing. Entropy can be interpreted as a measure of the evenness with which energy is distributed, and this is most even when it is distributed as random motion among molecules. The increasing in evenness, or entropy, with which energy is spread out, can be interpreted as increasing 'disorder.' Order is regarded as separating things into categories, e.g. alphabetical order in a phone book. To spread things out with perfect evenness is to disregard all differentiations; a particular category of objects is evenly spread out among all the other categories, and that is maximum disorder. In general, all spontaneous processes seem to bring about an increase in disorder. Unless a special effort is made to reverse the order of things all things tend to disarray, e.g. neat rooms will tend to become messed up (Asimov I, 1966).

Scientists who subscribe to the evolutionary hypothesis suggest that the Earth is not a closed system so the second law of thermodynamics cannot be used to rule out the evolution of life on Earth. They suggest that the Earth may be regarded as part of the solar system, and that the solar system may be understood to be the closed system. The energy from the Sun is to provide the energy for a 'long and local build up of order' to take place on the Earth (Gould, S. J, 1997).

The laws of thermodynamics suggest that energy is distributed; hot objects will lose their heat and heat up cooler things around them, e.g. a cup of coffee cooling on a desk. In physics, equilibrium is the condition where energy is distributed into its most probable form throughout the available space. The tendency to equilibrium is in contrast to speculative scenarios of 'long and local build up of order,' even if the Sun is providing energy for the Earth. Even with billions or trillions of years, and trillions of solar systems, although there may be occasions of limited 'long and local build up of order,' there is no observational or experimental evidence that this process can result in any complex multidimensional system, e.g. a living cell, tending continually away from equilibrium. In light of the sedimentological research of Guy Berthault, Alexander Lalamov et al, which has called into question the geological time scale, this lack of evidence for more than extremely limited 'build up of order' invalidates the evolutionary hypothesis.

* * *

Are Radio-dating Methods Reliable?

Jean de Pontcharra

Methods using radioactive decay effects are supposed to confirm stratigraphic chronologies and to improve our knowledge of the age of the Earth. In fact, the reality is much more complicated. Fundamental issues must be discussed. For example, what is the importance of the assumptions made for initial conditions in the final result? Is the experimental method applicable to events in the past? And, if the answer is yes, with what precautions?

Reviewing the history of radio-dating methods shows the oversimplified assumptions made at the beginning of the XXth century. The extreme simplicity of nuclear models, the lack of knowledge of radioactive decay series, the ignorance of isotopes, the 'closed system' hypothesis, but above all, the choice of initial conditions far from realistic, gave rise to contradictory results. We will show that, despite huge improvements in measurement techniques, these weaknesses from the beginning were never corrected. Results discordant with the geological time-scale are systematically discarded. Worst of all, no forum is provided in which scientists can formulate objections to the validity of the initial hypothesis.

Based on the radioactive decay series initiated by uranium-238, we analyze the consequences of different initial conditions on the age of metamorphic rocks.

Through some examples, we discuss the validity of the 'closed system' concept (no exchange between the rock crystals and the environment), in particular for the potassium/argon method applied to volcanic rocks undergoing hydrothermal conditions, far from standard conditions (supercritical state at deep depths) and never included in models of crystallization. The crystallization occurring in liquid or viscous magma traps gases and crystal out-gassing during eruption is not total. Argon-40 in excess is demonstrated in magmatic rocks from recent volcanic eruptions, like Mt St Helens (USA) and Mt Ngauruhoe (New Zealand). The quantity of argon-40 trapped depends on hydrothermal conditions during solidification and on structure of the crystal lattice. These results explain the systematic and erratic ages obtained from material collected at recent eruption sites.

The need of a free, open and wide debate on such subjects, linked with systematic experiments, is vital for the credibility of modern scientists involved in this research field.

* * *

Did Megafauna and Dinosaurs Live at the Same Time?

Josef Holzschuh

The discovery of collagen and soft tissue in a Tyrannosaurus-rex dinosaur femur bone was recently reported in the journal Science. Its geologic location was the Hell Creek Formation in the State of Montana, United States of America. When it was learned in 2005 that Triceratops and Hadrosaur femur bones in excellent condition were discovered by the Glendive (MT) Dinosaur & Fossil Museum, permission was asked and received to saw them in half and collect samples for radiocarbon (RC) testing of any bone collagen that might be extracted. Indeed both bones contained collagen and conventional dates of 30,890 +/- 380 for the Triceratops and 23,170 +/-170 for the Hadrosaur were obtained using an Accelerated Mass Spectrometer. Total organic carbon and bio-apatite were then extracted and pretreated to remove potential contaminants and concordant radiocarbon dates were obtained, all of which were similar to radiocarbon dates for megafauna.

A study of radiocarbon literature for dating of both megafauna such as mammoths, mastodons, saber tooth tiger (Smilidon), giant bison and sloths; and, dinosaurs like Acrocanthosaurus, Allosaurus and Hadrosaur show that they all lived at the same time. According to Dr. Walter Libby, the inventor of the radiocarbon dating method, "There is no known natural mechanism by which collagen may be altered to yield a false age." Other scientists have shown that collagen and soft tissue would degrade within 30,000 to 100,000 years. And even significant trace amounts of C-14 have been found in coal and diamonds where there should be none. There is also paleontological evidence that dinosaurs and humans have coexisted as their footprints have been found together in the same strata at several locations in the United States. There are distinct dinosaur depictions world-wide that confirm the RC data; these include Israel, Syria, East Africa, Peru, Mexico, United States and Cambodia.

To address these apparent and very serious chronology anomalies, account needs to be taken of the evolving situation in geology and paleontology. Experiments in stratification challenging the principles of stratigraphy and hence the geological time-scale could help to provide an explanation. The assumption that dinosaurs are over 65 million years old, for instance, is directly related to ages of rocks determined inter alia by the principle of superposition of strata. If this principle is incorrect, as shown by laboratory experiments, so are the ages of the fossils in the rocks contingent upon it. This paper confirms the existence of residual carbon 14 in fossils normally excluded from the RC dating method because of their supposed age. Advances in sedimentology and RC dating of fossils now allow for a systematic reevaluation of the ages assigned to the earth's sedimentary rocks by stratigraphy.

* * *

Impact of Race Formation and Mutations
on the Theory of Evolution

Maciej Giertych

Throughout Europe evolution is taught in schools as a biological fact. The main evidence for this presented in school textbooks is based on the assertion that formation of races is an example of a small step in evolution. This is profoundly wrong. Races form as a consequence of genetic drift, selection and isolation. Genetic drift results from the accidental loss of some genetic variation in small populations due to inbreeding. Selection depends on the elimination from a population of all forms not adapted to the particular environment. With this elimination also some gene variants (alleles) get lost. For natural races to be identifiable they have to remain isolated from the main body of the population. The same is true in breeding, where the breeder reproduces the race formation procedure only applying selection pressures of his own choice. Macroevolution requires increase of genetic variants, thus race formation which depends on their reduction is a process in the opposite direction, comparable to extinctions.

Positive mutations, as a mechanism leading to new functions or organs, are an undemonstrated postulate. We can demonstrate many neutral and negative mutations, but no positive ones. The claim that the appearance of resistance to man-made chemicals (herbicides, fungicides, antibiotics etc) is evidence of positive mutations is questioned on the ground that it belongs to the multitude of defense mechanisms (like healing or acquiring immunity) which defend the existing life functions of an organism without creating new ones.

* * *
Posted November 12, 2009

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